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Silat In Action

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Friday, April 30, 2010

WHAT IS SILAT?

Silat is an ancient martial art that originates in Southeast Asia, particularly from the Malay Archipelago (Nusantara) nations of Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, Singapore and the Philippines.

Silat has spawned many hundreds of schools and styles (aliran) that draw their origins from the observation of wild animals in combat. These many aliran have made their way over the oceans to reach many countries in Europe and the Americas who keep the Silat very much alive abroad.

The martial art of Silat is also called Pencak Silat. Pencak refers to a combat situation between two silat practitioners.

Silat worldwide is based on the following aspects:

Mental and Spiritual Strength
To build and develop personality, noble character and honour is the main objective of silat practitioners that must beupheld during combat or dangerous situations.

Self- defense
As with any martial art, the skill of defending oneself and protecting loved ones when in danger or when faced with adversity is what all silat practitioners prepare themselves for.

Weaponry
Along with the strength of the human body, silat also uses ancient weapons like the keris, pedang, parang/golok, lembing, kayu/tongkat,kipas, tekpi,kelabit and japanese sword.

Sports
Competitions and intense training keep the practitioners' skills sharp, through form demonstrations, forsingle, double or teamed combat. The concept of sound mind, sound body.

Art and Culture
Performing the 'art' of silat is very important. Traditional costumes and music that accompany the stylized moves and artistic techniques of the martial art have made it an internationally recognized form of choreography. Silat is also used in very many officious events, as part of the Malay custom, such as weddings and royal occasions.

Sunday, June 1, 2008

Silat Game




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Pencak Silat

At the dawn of 20th century, chaos reigns. Fight to restore order.

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THE TEACHING OF NOBLE MIND AND CHARACTER
AS SPIRITUAL DIMENSION OF PENCAK SILAT

PREFACE
Challenges against Pencak Silat consist of 3 prominent things. Firstly, is the reception of Pencak Silat outside its native countries which is only its physical dimension. Whereas the real and intact Pencak Silat is when it involves physical dimension as well as spiritual dimension as an un-separated unity. Physical dimension of Pencak Silat is a series of variegated Pencak Silat techniques, each of which has its own characteristic. Spiritual dimension of Pencak Silat, which can also be said as spiritual basis of Pencak Silat, is the teaching of noble mind and character. This teaching is the motivation source of the usage of physical Pencak Silat. Secondly, is wrong perception which regard mental-spiritual aspect as mysticism aspect, which is the source of mighty power. Whereas in fact it is an ethical aspect of Pencak Silat and a manifestation of the teaching of noble mind and character. And thirdly, is the dissemination of Pencak Silat outside its native countries which is not in all the genuine, real, original and pure Pencak Silat, but the other self-defense system using Pencak Silat name, and is not based on the teaching of noble mind and character as the spiritual dimension and base of Pencak Silat. The teaching of noble mind and character constitute one of the criteria of the genuine Pencak Silat that come from and which is the product of the culture of Nusantara communities. Self-defense system naming itself Pencak Silat but its spiritual base is not the teaching of noble mind and character, essentially is not Pencak Silat.



Here under is the explanation about the spiritual dimension of Pencak Silat, which will be ahead by the explanation about the values and identity of Pencak Silat.

THE VALUES OF PENCAK SILAT
The values of Pencak Silat are all things which are idolized as well as coloring, inspiring, motivating and providing guidance for the living of Pencak Silat.

Pencak Silat has four values as a unity, namely ethical, technical, aesthetic and athletic values. Ethical value is a value of noble mind and character which implicitly and inherently contains religion, social and cultural values which are glorified by the communities. The value of ethic is useful for the purpose of peace and friendship among human beings, among groups of human beings and among communities, and among members of nations. Technical value is a value of effective, efficient and productive. This value is useful for the purpose of fighting to defend oneself. Aesthetic value is a value of beauty, conformity and harmony. This value is useful for the purpose of entertainment and pleasure. Athletic value is a value of sports which is useful for the purpose of developing physical health, fitness and endurance.

The said four values have tight relation with social and individual moral ideal in the circle of Nusantara communities. The meaning of Nusantara in this explanation is a region involving Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei Darussalam. Ethical and technical values refer to the fulfillment of need and interest of security, whereas aesthetic and athletic values refer to the fulfillment of need and interest of prosperity. Both involve spiritual and physical side.

Ethical, technical, aesthetic and athletic values as a unity, besides constitute the values of Pencak Silat also constitute the unique pattern and specialty of Pencak Silat originating from the culture of Nusantara communities. The four mentioned values are the essense of the identity of Pencak Silat.

THE IDENTITY OF PENCAK SILAT
The identity of Pencak Silat as a totality, which cumulatively showing the genuineness, intact, originality and uniqueness of Pencak Silat, is determined by four prominent things as a unity.

Firstly, is the culture of Nusantara communities as the source and specific pattern of Pencak Silat, either its spiritual dimension or its physical dimension. The communities of Nusantara while gave birth to Pencak Silat was a kinship community (Gemeinschaft). Culture basing and produced by this community is a culture of communality, namely the culture of harmony, brotherhood, kinship, togetherness, solidarity, thoughtfulness and cooperativeness, which makes every community member compulsory to always put forward attitude, deed and behavior of
(1) silih-asih, silih-asah and silih-asuh (Sundanese), which means loving, developing and protecting each other,
(2) melu handarbeni, melu hangrungkebi, mulat saliro hangroso wani (Javanese), which means sense belonging, sense of responsibility and audacious to execute correction in accordance with the community kindness,
(3) giving priority to common interest rather than to private interest, considering obligation as most important instead of right, and
(4) consultation, good relationship and helping each other. The ideal of kinship community is the realization of tata-tentrem karta-raharja (Javanese), which means orderliness, tranquility, just and prosperous. This social ideal must be based on and integrated with the individual ideal of the community members, namely noble mind and character.

Secondly, is the specific moral teaching of the Nusantara community as spiritual base and usage motivation source of Pencak Silat. Each ethnic and local community in the Nusantara area has its own moral teaching. All of these teachings have similarity in their goals, namely to build noble mind and character. Therefore, all of those ethnic and local moral teachings generally can be called as the teaching of noble mind and character. All steady practices of the community members in the form of attitude, deed and behavior, included those relating to the carrying out and usage of Pencak Silat, must be based on this moral teaching. Thus, the teaching of noble mind and character has to inspire and to become spiritual base of Pencak Silat and motivation source of the usage of Pencak Silat. According to this teaching’s view, Pencak Silat as an effective self-defense system has to become a sublime means and must be used for a sublime objective as well. It means that Pencak Silat can be used only for self-defending. When Pencak Silat must be used in fighting, the carrying out of it must always be controlled and measured. Attacking arbitrarily and capriciously, is a prohibited action.

Pencak Silat must be viewed as deterrent force and preventive force. Deterrent force is a force which will stimulate the opponent to repeatedly thinks and makes consideration when he wants to attack physically. Preventive force is a force for always wary and be careful. Pencak Silat as repressive force is only used as the latest choose and in a forced condition

Thirdly, is the manifestation of Pencak Silat values in four aspects of regular practice or appearance as a unity, namely the aspects of mental-spiritual, self-defense, art and sports. These four aspects of Pencak Silat can also be called as the aspects of ethic, technique, aesthetic and athletic.

All of them cannot be separated each other but can be distinguished based on their purpose. Mental-spiritual aspect describes the purpose of mental forming of the genuine Pencak Silat man. Self-defense aspect describes the purpose of self-defending by performing and using the unique techniques of Pencak Silat. Art aspect describes the purpose of the appearance beauty of Pencak Silat. Sports aspect describes the sports purpose of Pencak Silat, that is, fitness, adroitness and sports achievement.

In the framework of the social ideal of the Nusantara kinship communities, the purposes of mental-spiritual and self-defense aspects are related to the security factors, whereas the purposes of art and sports aspects are connected with the prosperity factors.

Fourthly, is the kaidah or pakem (norm), that is, basic rule relating to the enforcement custom and manner of Pencak Silat. This norm contains moral teaching as well as values and aspects of Pencak Silat as a unity. Thus, the basic rule called pakem or kaidah contains norms of ethical, logical, aesthetic and athletic. These norms can be construed as basic rule which arranges the carrying out of Pencak Silat ethically, technically, aesthetically and athletically as a unity.

Based on the said identity of Pencak Silat, holistically Pencak Silat can be defined as a system of patterned movement which has the values of self-control, self-defense, beauty and harmony movement as well as the forming of physical adroitness, fitness and endurance according to the sublimity of the values of Pencak Silat. All of them are based on the teaching of noble mind and character and the culture of the Nusantara communities which esteem highly the religious and social morality.



THE TEACHING OF NOBLE MIND AND CHARACTER
Every self-defense system, wherever it come from, always owns spiritual dimension, which all at once has also the function of spiritual base. Usually, the dimension or the base of a self-defense system is the moral philosophy or teaching of the community and culture where the self-defense system come from. Self-defense system of China, Japan and Korea, respectively based on moral philosophy or teaching of the community and culture of China, Japan and Korea. The existence of this spiritual base is a necessity, need and requirement, because the community where that self-defense system come from, beware very well that this self-defense system will be dangerous for human being and community if it has no controller. Moral philosophy or teaching which are esteemed highly and obeyed by the community is a controller and all at once also a motivation source in using the self-defense system.

Pencak Silat as a self-defense system, coming from the culture of ethnic and local communities of Nusantara, also has moral philosophy or teaching base which are glorified and obeyed by the respective communities. This moral philosophy or teaching as a spiritual dimension of Pencak Silat constitute a unity and a package with its physical dimension. The teaching and training of Pencak Silat techniques and their performance skills must be carried out together and parallel with the education of moral philosophy or teaching which are the spirit, controller and motivation source of the usage of Pencak Silat. Without any controller, Pencak Silat will potentially and trendily be used unaccountably, and therefore, it will be dangerous for human being and community.

In the area of Nusantara, moral philosophies or teachings are much enough, as much as the ethnic and local communities where the said philosophies or teachings come from. But all of them has the same essence, base and goal, namely the conviction of the existence of God, that human being comes from God and will returns to God. Because human being comes from God, then the status of human being is sublime. In order that human being with his sublime status can be accepted by God as good as possible when he someday later returns to Him, then during his living as well as in his life and living course he is obliged to belief in God, that is, trust and yield to Him, as well as be obliged to devote to Him, that is, to put into regular practice the teaching of God. All of them are carried out consistently, consequently and continuously. His intention and regular practice is nothing other than because of God. His living objective is to obtain the blessing of God. Spiritual manifestation in the form of individual moral of the belief in and devote to God is noble mind and character.

Thus, the quantitatively moral philosophy or teaching of ethnic and local communities in the area of Nusantara, can be generalized with the name of philosophy or teaching of noble mind and character. In other words, the teaching of noble mind and character is the generalization and general name of the moral teaching of the Nusantara local and ethnic communities.

Mind is a human spiritual activity which has three elements as a unity, that is, karsa, rasa and cipta (old Javanese), meaning the activeness of willing, sensing and reasoning. Character is moral. Character reflecting mind. Noble means sublime or high esteem. Thus, the meaning of noble mind and character is the activitiveness of sublime willing, sensing and reasoning based on a firm belief in and devote to God. Willing determines obligation and prohibition, sensing determines good and bad, reasoning determines right and wrong. Therefore, willing connecting with mental-spiritual (moral), sensing with emotion and reasoning with intelligence. External manifestation of noble mind and character in the form of individual regular practice are sublime or high esteem attitude, deed and behavior.

The teaching of noble mind and character advices human being to process and build his mind and character continually and optimally which are directed to the realization of the wisdom of moral, emotion and intelligence. The meaning of wisdom here is a capability to distinguish and to choose rightly and precisely in the frame work of the effort to actualize a sublimity. Even the process and building of willing must be directed to the realization of the total integration of human willing with the Willing of God. Besides of that, posing, functioning and rolling the willing as the leader, director and controller of sensing, reasoning and character. By such way, all steady practices of human being will be based on wisdom and will be synchronic with the Willing of God. It means that all of those mentioned steady practices will get God blessing and will make human being valuable in the front of God as well as the fellow human being.

Thus, the teaching of noble mind and character is a view of life and advice about wisdom. Because it is inherited and must be glorified by the members of the community, then the teaching of noble mind and character can be construed as traditional view of life and wisdom of the Nusantara communities.

Philosophy is a view and wisdom of human life in relation with the social, cultural, moral and religion values which are esteemed highly by the communities. According to the perception of the local and ethnic communities of Nusantara, philosophy contains teaching, and otherwise, teaching contains philosophy. Teaching inherent to philosophy and philosophy inherent to teaching. Philosophy and teaching equally formulate the view on and the advice for human being in his life and living course. The substance of advice involves guidance to be enforced and prohibitions to be kept away. Thus, the philosophy of noble mind and character can also be called as the teaching of noble mind and character. Both have the same meaning.

The teaching of noble mind and character is a divine moral teaching. According to this teaching, human being in his life and living course has four kinds of sublime status as a unity.

Firstly, is the status of God’s being, because human beings came from and will return to God. God is the origin and living goal of all human beings. Because human being originates from God, then he is a sublime creature. In order to be well accepted by God, and to be well placed beside Him at the moment he must return to Him, then during his life he must always be a man of noble mind and character.

Secondly, is the status of individual (personal) being, because each man (person) has his own personality which is unique and different with the other human beings. Personality constitutes the characteristic of some-one.

Thirdly, is the status of social being, because in this world human being does not live alone but lives in a community together with the other human beings.

Fourthly, is the status of universal being, because human being lives in a living environment which are integral part of the nature together with its contents (its ecology) created by God for human beings as His favor.

For that each status, human being has sublime obligation which must be fulfilled. The sublime obligations of human being as God creature is to believe in and devote to God and always upholds religion values. The sublime obligation of human being as individual creature is to put his personality in high esteem and always upholds the individual moral values. The sublime obligation of human being as a social creature is to uphold peace and friendship and the social and cultural moral values. The sublime obligation of human being as universal creature is loving his living environment and always upholding the natural-universal moral values. All of those obligations are related and connected each other and are directed to achieve one goal, that is, to obtain God’s bless. The more detail of those sublime obligations will be explained briefly here under.

As God’s creature, the sublime obligations of human being are among others : to worship God according to the valid custom rule of religion as his gratitude for his own existence and life and for any other God’ favors ; practicing God’s and religious teachings in his individual and social life as well as in his universal life ; carrying out God’s doctrines and keep away from God’s prohibitions, not only in his religious life but also in his private life, social life and universal life ; his attitude, deed and behavior must always be controlled, determined and directed in order to always be in God’s way ; his initiatives to achieve his personal objective are not enforced by allowing any ways (finis non santificat medium) but will be carried out through ways justified by and shown in the teaching of God.

As individual creature, the sublime obligations of human being are among others : to be wisdom, to be intelligent, to be smart, to be clever, to be skilled, always to be careful and wary, capable to anticipate and always to be ahead to the challenges and capable to lead himself ; to be sensitive, concerned and adjust quickly against change and development, tough and able to develop capability in overcoming difficulties and problems, keep firmly the principle and to be diligent, creative, innovative, energetic, adroit and always pursue progress ; always to be introspective, self-evaluative, self-corrective, guarding personal authority and self-esteem ; wide, prospective, objective, logical, critical and positive thinking ; controlling oneself and self- interest ; doing the best, to be patient, to be credible, to be serious to the principle things, respecting time and optimistic ; upholding personal discipline, truth, honesty and justice, and to be test-proofed against all ordeals and temptations ; accountable for the appearance of his attitude, deed and behavior. ; having effective, efficient, productive, simple, economical, generous, humble, sincere and low profile pattern of living ; willing to accept advice of others, friendly, well mannered, not easy to be angry, to be frustrated and to be desperate ; dislike to be egocentric, to be grumble, to be arrogant, to be jealous, to be envy, to be misunderstand, to be a priori, to make someone difficult, to be hypocritical and like to work hard.

As social creature, the sublime obligations of human being are among others : respecting and always upholding togetherness, harmony, cooperativeness, brotherhood and social solidarity; placing common interest above personal interest ; obeying and upholding values which are glorified by his community ; to be concerned to the problem and development of his community ; willing to understand the interest of others, to be moderate, respecting un-similar opinion, always to be thoughtful, pleasure to intercourse and to be well mannered in social intercourse, giving example in leading, carrying out approach by acceptable ways, joy to good relationship, ready to apologize when guilty and ready to forgive if requested, to be opened against advice, suggestion, criticism and correction of others, supporting and upholding consistent and consequent social discipline and social leadership, to be socially adult, delight to consult in problem solving, to be helpful to they who are being in trouble and worry, not to be narrow minded, fanaticism, primordial and sectarian.

As universal creature, the sublime obligations of human being are among others : loving nature and its contents in the form of living environment, flora, fauna etc. as God’s favors for human mankind ; saving, perpetuating and increasing the condition, balance and quality of the nature in order to become conducive for the existence, development and developing of human life as well as can give progress, prosperous and happiness for human mankind ; always upholding the living environmental ethics and discipline by maintaining clean-ness, health, orderliness, regularity and comfort as well as preventing and overcoming any kinds of environmental pollutions and damaging.

The foremost parts of the teaching of noble mind and character are discipline and leadership of Pencak Silat. Discipline is obliged to be upheld by all community members, whereas leadership must be upheld by they who are recognized and accepted as leaders by a group of community.

Discipline has three meanings as a unity. Firstly, is the attitude of always upholding the religious and social moral norms, values and demands. Secondly, is the honest, sincere, autonomous, consequent and responsible obey and obedience to the arrangements, regulations, etiquettes, procedures and agreement which are legal in force. Thirdly, is the willingness to control and to rule himself.

Based on the said meanings, to carry out and uphold discipline have multi-values, among other : the value of believing in and devoting to God, the value of sublime and high esteem regular practicing, the value of personal and social responsibility, the value of social togetherness and solidarity, the value of social servitude, the value of social tolerance, thoughtfulness and concern, and the value of mental-spiritual and social adulthood.

Leadership is a capability to influence others in achieving common objective. According to the teaching of noble mind and character, leadership is not based on physical power or formal authority, but on the authority shaped from the personality, examples and dedication of the leader which are accepted by many people because the said leadership has shaped useful capabilities for their living, included the capability to lead themselves to realize excellent, sublime and useful progress for them, their group and their community. Therefore, these other people are ready and delight to become follower of the leader.

With those such qualifications, according to the teaching of noble mind and character, leadership has three qualities as a unity, that is, the quality of asih (loving), asah (developing) and asuh (protecting). Asih (loving) is a quality to understand the aspiration, interest, self-esteem and problem of the followers, close and intimate as well as developing good relationship with the followers. Asah (developing) is a quality of always self-evaluating, self-correcting, increasing personal quality and developing, maintaining and increasing intelligence as well as the spiritual, moral, emotional and intellectual wisdom of the followers. Asuh (protecting) is a quality to always motivating, directing, guiding and protecting the followers persuasively and educative and serving and stimulating as well as giving conducive chance for the followers to ever onward.

According to the teaching of noble mind and character, leadership which are asih (loving), asah (developing) and asuh (protecting) must be carried out on the base of seven principles as a unity, namely the principle of devoting to God, examples, brotherhood, solidarity, simplicity, knighthood and intellectualism. Based on those mentioned principles, leadership has relation and to be connected with :
(1) the trusteeship of God practiced to build human being to become a man of noble mind and character,
(2) the sublime examples in upholding the religious, moral, social and cultural values which are esteemed highly by the community,
(3) the spirit of brotherhood inspiring interaction between leader and followers and among the followers,
(4) the attitude of solidarity and concern of the leader to the follower, and otherwise, the follower to the leader and among the followers,
(5) the simplicity of thinking and acting in endeavoring to achieve the objective,
(6) the upholding of truth, honesty and just and strengthening personal controlling force, sense of responsibility and mental resistance in facing any ordeal and temptation, and
(7) the forming and maintaining of intelligence and skill, capability of self-leading, authority, wisdom, capability of anticipation and to be wary against risk and worst possibility which are able to be and can be occurred.

In accordance with the statuses, positions and obligations of human being, the teaching of noble mind and character has seven insights, that is, the insights of divine, humanity, peace, friendship, resilience, development, struggle and gallantry. Based on those mentioned insights, every steady practice of human being
(1) must be able to be responsible to God,
(2) must not contravenes the ethic of just and civilized humanity,
(3) must be peacefully and friendly in facing everyone, included the opponent,
(4) must be able to actualize mental and physical tenacity and perseverance in facing various handicaps and problems,
(5) must be able to increase continually personal quality and advance,
(6) must be not easily give up and continually goes onward in the struggle to actualize sublime goal and
(7) must always to uphold truth, honesty and justice and test-proofed in facing all ordeals and temptations.

The goal of the teaching of noble mind and character is to shape human being who beliefs in and devotes to God, owning sublime personality, always upholding peace and friendship and love his living environment. These measures compel human being to own strong ability, capability and endurance of self-control, by which he is obliged to control himself and his interests. The teaching of noble mind and character and its goals are normative and imperative to be applied and actualized in human living, life and living course.

The essence of the teaching of noble mind and character is self-control. Self-control does not means self-bridle but mastering, placing, taking, functioning, rolling and directing oneself through sublime way and for sublime purpose based on self consciousness and autonomous intention.

The sense of the spiritual dimension of Pencak Silat is similar with the essence of the teaching of noble mind and character, that is, self-control. This purpose constitutes trusteeship for every Pencak Silat practitioner to perform and use Pencak Silat in fighting to be controlled and measured. Not overdose or redundant, arbitrarily, despotism and capriciously, in the form of cruel treatment or soul vanishing.

In that connection, the teaching of noble mind and character along with its goal constitute one of the criteria of the genuine spiritual dimension of Pencak Silat, namely Pencak Silat that come from and which is the product of the culture of Nusantara local and ethnic communities. Self-defense system naming itself Pencak Silat but its spiritual base is not the teaching of noble mind and character, essentially is not Pencak Silat.

Essentially, Pencak Silat is a substance and means of education in its wide sense, involving education in its narrow sense, teaching and training. Education in its narrow sense relates to mind and character (mental), personality, attitude and behavior. Teaching relates to knowledge and insight. Training relates to technical skill, physical adroitness and struggle spirit. Education in its narrow sense, teaching an training, can be distinguished but cannot be separated each other. All of those ones constitute an intact integral unity.

Education, teaching and training of Pencak Silat involve the two dimensions of Pencak Silat simultaneously and integrally. It means that quantitatively and qualitatively the carrying out and yields of the education must be in conformed, balanced and harmonious condition with the carrying out of the teaching and training of Pencak Silat. The wider and higher the knowledge, theory, skill and trick quantity and quality of the Pencak Silat performer, the more steady and higher must be the quality of his full and total comprehension and its regular practice concerning the teaching of noble mind and character. The higher the teaching and training of Pencak Silat level given to some one, the deeper and wider the education of the teaching of noble mind and character must be given to him. The depth and width in fact must be actualized in the steadiness of full and total comprehension and regular practice of the teaching. That such qualification and mental, intelligent and physical conformity can be formulated with the words taqwa, tanggap, tangguh, tanggon and trengginas.

Taqwa means belief in God through enforcing all His teaching continually, consistently and consequently, having noble mind and character, increasing personal quality continually, and always placing, rolling and functioning himself as a disciplined and social dedicated community member, namely an obeyed and obedient community member sincerely, honestly, autonomously and consequently to the arrangement, regulation, customs, manners and agreement which are legal in force and participating actively and positively in the efforts to advance and to make prosperous the community based on the sense of social togetherness, harmony, peace, friendship, solidarity and responsibility and the sense of responsibility to God.

In connection with the performance of self-defense Pencak Silat, taqwa means always requiring physical and spiritual strength and protection, guidance and guideline of God in order that the performing of self-defense Pencak Silat has a maximum competitive superiority but always in measured and controlled condition, so that it will has no negative result for the competing opponent, otherwise able to realize eternal peace and friendship with the opponent. All of those ones based on firm belief in God.

Tanggap means sensitive, concern, anticipative, pro-active and has readiness against the happened change and development, together with all tendencies, demands and challenges along with them based on the attitude of daring to introspect himself and to ever enhance his quality.

In connection with the performance of self-defense Pencak Silat, tanggap means sensitive, intelligent, smart and punctilious in anticipating and appreciate the strength and indication of the opponent and the developing situation, condition and opportunity as well as in forming strength and skill to surpass the opponent’s strength quickly and accurately. All of those ones based on prudent, alertness, clairvoyance and hint (always to be ahead to the challenges).

Tangguh means tenacity and ability to develop capability in facing and answering every challenge and overcoming every problem, obstacle, disturbance and threat as well as to achieve a sublime goal based on persevering genuine struggle man attitude.

In connection with the performance of self-defense Pencak Silat, tangguh means having a lot of initiative and creation, long-minded and able to develop capability in overcoming the real problems or difficulties as the effort to surpass the opponent.

Tanggon (Javanese) means able to uphold justice, honesty and truth, firm, consistent and consequent in keeping the principle, having strong sense of self-esteem (self-respect) and personality, full considerably in acting, to be disciplined, always remember and alert and test-proof against all temptations and ordeals.

In connection with the performance of self-defense Pencak Silat, tanggon means test-proof, not easy to be provoked, to be tricked or confused and not easy to loose mind and initiative in facing various form of the opponent’s difficult actions. All of those ones are based on the strong self-reliance and ever high spirit and courage.

Trengginas (Javanese) means energetic, active, explorative, creative, innovative, wide and prospective thinking and able to work hard to pursue excellent and useful progress for oneself and for the community based on the readiness attitude to build oneself and sense of responsible for the development of his community.

In connection with the performance of self-defense Pencak Silat, trengginas means energetic, active, creative, innovative, skillful (handy), ever seek a way, initiative and opportunity, adroit, nimble and agile and ever endeavoring to snatch away the opponent’s initiative and make the opponent powerless. All of those ones are based on never gave up attitude.

The ideal end yield to be hoped from the education, teaching and training of Pencak Silat is the formation of human being who is courageous but humble, which in the language of old Javanese is catch worded with bhirawa anuraga, which means mighty but modest. That such human being is symbolized as a bending paddy stalk because of its luxuriant grain contents. The more luxuriant and contented the paddy the more bending the stalk. Therefore, Pencak Silat is also called as ilmu padi (paddy science), that is, the science about proficiency to perform Pencak Silat controlled by the sublimity of mind and character, which makes human being to be more modest if his proficiency increase higher and higher.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLOSURE
From all of the above set out, it can be concluded concisely that the spiritual dimension of Pencak Silat is the teaching of noble mind and character. This teaching constitutes also spiritual base, motivation source, measurer and controller in performing and using Pencak Silat physically.

May this writing be useful.

Jakarta, August the 17th, 2006.

Saturday, May 31, 2008

Countries listed as members of PERSILAT (International Silat Federation)

Countries listed as members of PERSILAT include:

Asian Region (18 countries):
Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei Darussalam (Founders)
Cambodia, Japan, Korea, India, Laos, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam
Kazakstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyztan

European Region (15 countries):
Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom

Middle Eastern Region (7 countries):
Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates

African Region (4 countries):
Egypt, Morocco, South Africa, Suriname

American Region (3 countries):
Canada, Chili, USA,

Oceania Region (2 countries):
Australia, New Zealand

World Silat Championship

WORLD SILAT CHAMPIONSHIP - PAST CHAMPIONS AND CHAMPIONSHIPS
Championship Venue Year Participating
Countries
Overall
Champion
1st Jakarta, Indonesia 1982 7 Indonesia
2nd Jakarta, Indonesia 1984 9 Indonesia
3rd Vienna, Austria 1986 14 Indonesia
4th Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1987 18 Indonesia
5th Singapore 1988 18 Indonesia
6th Den Haag, Netherlands 1990 18 Indonesia
7th Jakarta, Indonesia 1992 20 Indonesia
8th Hatyai, Thailand 1994 19 Indonesia
9th Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1997 20 Indonesia
10th Jakarta, Indonesia 2000 20 Indonesia
11th Penang, Malaysia 2002 19 Vietnam
12th Singapore 2004 20 Vietnam
13th Kuantan, Malaysia 2007 26 (25 competing) TBA





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